As the pandemic continues, the economic impact has manifested itself as a recession, as layoffs, salary cuts and hiring freezes. Savvy employees would have recognised that balance of power has shifted towards the employer. Thus, career management and prospects for advancements have now become more challenging.
According to the research done by World at Work, as of April 2020, only 17% of firms were freezing any pay raises. There is scope for higher compensation for employees at entry level or middle management level. Now, the question to ask ourselves is – How to ask. Here are some tips to put yourself in better position to negotiate and manage your career.
根據《World at Work》協會所做的研究，截至 2020 年 4 月為止，只有 17％ 的公司凍結加薪。對於初階職員或中階主管來說，其實還有更高的薪酬空間，我們所面對的問題是 – 如何開口? Chloe Su 將分享一些技巧，幫助我們更好地談判並管理自己的職涯。(延伸閱讀 : 疫情後來場企業健檢吧! 用 2 個維度分析產業，超前部署妳的職涯)
Adapt your style to maximise your value
A study published in the Journal of Organisational Behaviour surveyed 150 professionals who had been hired in the last few years about their current style of negotiations.
《組織行為學期刊》有項研究，針對近幾年被雇用的 150 名專業人員進行調查，深入了解他們現有的談判風格。
Here are the 5 types of negotiating strategies identified by the research:
- Collaborating – engaging in problem solving, finding the common ground to reach the best possible outcome for both parties
- Competing – how to maximise your own outcomes with little or no concern for others
- Accommodating – prioritise the other party’s concern
- Compromising – try to reach middle ground
- Avoiding – as the name suggests, dodging negotiation altogether
以下是研究定義的 5 種談判策略類型：
- 合作 – 參與在解決問題的過程，找到共識為雙方帶來最佳的結果
- 競爭 – 如何在幾乎不關心他人的情況下，最大化自己可以得到的結果
- 包容 – 優先想到對方的考量和顧慮
- 妥協 – 嘗試達到中間的共識與立場
- 迴避 – 顧名思義，完全避開談判
Those who negotiated by ‘collaborating’ & ‘competing’ increased their pay by an average of USD 5,000. And being ‘accommodating’, ‘compromising’ and ‘avoiding’ had weak correlation to salary increment.
調查顯示，透過「合作」和「競爭」進行談判的人，薪水平均增加 了5,000 美元。而「包容」、「妥協」和「迴避」類型的人，則沒有明顯的薪資增長。
With ‘competing’, where the concern is to maximise one’s own outcome, it is often the case where getting to his/ her ideal pay is the main or only variable of concern. Negotiators come to the table with a single goal and they view the situation as a win-lose scenario, where winning is getting the ideal pay they are aiming for.
「競爭」類型的人，關注焦點常常落在「最大化自己可以得到的結果」。通常「獲得理想薪資」是此類人在談判中，主要或唯一考量的因素。這類型的談判者，帶著這個目標來到談判桌，並視談判為一個非贏即輸的局面，只要獲勝便能獲得他們追求的理想薪酬。(延伸閱讀 : 優雅地發揮職場影響力)
According to Max H. Bazerman, a professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, the failure to collaborate and engage in problem solving together leads to the possibility of ‘leaving money on the table’. This may not be in the absolute sense of literally leaving money on the table; one might still have successfully negotiated the ideal pay, but what they leave behind could be valuable by other measures.
哈佛商學院工商管理學教授 Max H. Bazerman 表示，談判過程如果無法「合作」並嘗試共同解決問題，就可能會將「錢擱淺在談判桌上」。這裡指的擱淺，不僅是字面上的「金錢」，也可能包含升遷、人才栽培、工作時間靈活度、職場前輩指導和年假等。
These include promotions, training courses, flexible working hours, mentoring and annual leave, just to name a few. The overall compensation package has the potential to be a lot more attractive, and of greater value to an individual’s career development, if these benefits were included.
妳可能成功談到理想的薪水，卻失去更多無法以金錢衡量其價值的福利。如果將這些福利放進考量，去看整體性的待遇 (薪水與其他福利) ，往往是具有更大吸引力，並對個人的職業發展也會有更加分的價值。
With a ‘collaborating’ approach, both parties, the employee and employer are fully cognizant that they each have a BATNA or ‘Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement’. Through the information exchange and negotiating process, the goal is to fall between the BATNAs of both parties – this is known as the ZOPA or zone of possible agreement.
透過「合作」的談判模式，受雇者和雇主都能意識到，他們各自擁有 BATNA (Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement 談判協議最佳替代方案)。資訊交換和談判目標，是落在雙方的 BATNA 之間 – 也就是 ZOPA (zone of possible agreement 談判協議區)。
The key to doing well here is having a strong BATNA – as a job seeker of as an employee negotiating your compensation, a strong BATNA would be staying in your current position (i.e. a preferred alternative in case of a failed negotiation where you could end up with no offer or a compensation package that is worse off).
最重要的關鍵是 – 妳要擁有一個強大的 BATNA。作為尋求理想薪酬的求職者，一個強大的 BATNA 可能會是繼續留任在妳目前的職位上（即，如果談判失敗，在沒有更好薪水、職位的情況下，還能選擇留在現有職位上）。(延伸學習 : Melody Lin 語音專訪 – 擁有試錯的勇氣幫助你更能掌握人生的選擇權)
You can read more about these strategies on Quartz at Work and on Harvard.edu.
若對這類談判策略有興趣，都可以在 Quartz at Work 和 Harvard.edu 上找到更多實用的資訊。